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(See Black Pride, and, in the context of worldwide anti-colonialism initiatives, Negritude.) In the 1990s, "Black" was displaced in favor of "African American", an example of what linguist Steven Pinker calls the "euphemism treadmill".
Moreover, as a compound word, African American resembles the vogue word Afro-American, an early-1970s popular usage. Fowler in A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926) states that applying the word nigger to "others than full or partial negroes" is "felt as an insult by the person described, & betrays in the speaker, if not deliberate insolence, at least a very arrogant inhumanity"; but the second edition (1965) states: "N.
During the fur trade of the early 1800s to the late 1840s in the Western United States, the word was spelled "niggur", and is often recorded in literature of the time.
George Fredrick Ruxton used it in his "mountain man" lexicon, without pejorative connotation.
In 2008 Carla Sims, its communications director, said "the term 'colored' is not derogatory, [the NAACP] chose the word 'colored' because it was the most positive description commonly used [in 1909, when the association was founded].
It's outdated and antiquated but not offensive." Canadian writer Lawrence Hill changed the title of his 2007 novel The Book of Negroes.
Accordingly, it began to disappear from popular culture, and its continued inclusion in classic works of literature has sparked controversy.
"Niggur" was evidently similar to the modern use of "dude" or "guy".
This passage from Ruxton's Life in the Far West illustrates the word in spoken form—the speaker here referring to himself: "Travler, marm, this niggur's no travler; I ar' a trapper, marm, a mountain-man, wagh!
The name refers to a real historical document, but he felt compelled to find another name for the American market, retitling the US edition Someone Knows My Name.
Nineteenth-century literature features usages of "nigger" without racist connotation.
But now I was jealous of the kids in Old Harbor Project down the road, which seemed like a step up from Old Colony... If you speak in a sentence, and you have to say cat, companion, or friend, as opposed to nigger, then the rhythmic presentation is off.